Descendants of Louis Autard and Sybille de Ferrus - France 1340

Notes


1. Louis Autard

1 NOTE Louis Autard lived around 1340. His family were originallyfromProvence
before settling in Dauphine, the French side of the Alps. Notmuch
is known about the family except that they received a title ofNobility
in 1375 and Louis was known as Seigneur de Pepin whichtranslated
means Lord of the Graneries. THE FIRST KNIGHTS In the FourthCentury
A.D. the Roman Empire fell and Europe was invaded by variousbarbarian
tribes. One of the dominant groups were the Franks of centraland
western Europe, who gradually expanded their power until, inA.D.
800, their leader Charlemagne became Emperor of the West.Charlemagne
became Emperor of the West. Charlemagne and his forebearersadded
to the number of horsemen in their army, giving land tomountedwarriors.
In the ninth century the empire, torn by civil wars andinvasions,
broke up. Local powerful lords and their mounted warriorsoffered
protection to peasants, who became serfs in return. In thisfeudal
system, which first developed in western Europe, the lordsthemselves
owede allegiance to greater lords, and were bound by oaths ofloyalty.
All these lords, and some of the men who served them, wereknights-
warriors who fought on horseback. By the 11th century a newsocial
order was formed by armoured knights, who served a local lord,count,
or duke, and were in turn served by serfs. Some knights weremercenary
soldiers who fought simply for money. Others, particularly untilthe
13th century, lived at their lord's expense as household troopsin
his castle. But others were given pieces of land by their lord.Such
a man became lord of the manor and lived off its produce. Helived
in a manor house, often of stone and with its own defences. Heheld
a large part of the manor as the home farm and "his" peasants,workers
of varying status, owed him service in return for their homes.They
had to bake their bread in his oven and pay for the privilege.The
lord received part of their goods, as did the church, althoughthey
might be invited to feasts at festivals such as Lammas (whenbread
made from the season's first corn were blessed). The lord satinjudgement
in the manor court and might have a house in a town forbusinessdealings
. Noblemen often could not read or write. Instead of signingadocument
they added a wax seal, pressed from a metal die. The AutardCrest
was first registered in 1378 as per Armorial guide. HERALDRYMen
had always decorated their shields. In the 12th century thesedesigns
became more standardized in a system known as heraldry, enablinga
knight to be identified by symbols on his shield, or a full coatof
arms. Heraldry was based on strict rules. Only one coat of armswas
carried by a knight, and this passed to his eldest son when hedied.
Other children used variants of their father's arms. describethe
autard coat of arms. THE CRUSADES In 1095 at Clermont, France,Pope
Urban II launched a military expedition to take the ChristianHoly
Places in Jerusalem back from the Seljuk Turks who ruled theHoly
Land. This expedition became known as the First Crusade. A hugearmy
travelled thousands of kilometres across Europe, gatheringatConstantinople
(now Istanbul) before going on to capture Jerusalem in 1099. Butthe
city was soon retaken by the Muslims and many other crusadesfailed
to take it back, apart from a brief period in 1228-29 when theGerman
emperor, Frederick II, made an agreement with the Muslims. TheAUTARD
crest shows an Outarde (a cory bustard) holding an olive branchfrom
Constantinople in its beak.

Source Nobillaire De Ancienne Ilse de France
Source Marie Laure Autard de Bragard


Sybille De Ferrus

1 NOTE THE LADY OF THE MANOR In the middle ages women, even thoseofnoble
rank, had far fewer rights than a woman expect today. Youngwomen
were often married by the age of 14. A girl's family wouldarrange
her marriage and she would be given a dower, a gift to pass ontoher
husband. On marriage a womans inheritance passed to the husband,so
knights were often on the lookout for a rich heiress to marry.But
the lady was her husbands equal in private life. She couldprovide
great support for her husband and take responsibility for thecastle
when he was away. She might even have to defend the castle if itwere
besieged and hold it against her enemies. THE LIFE OF THE LADYThe
lady ruled the domestic areas - the kitchens and living quarters-
of the castle or manor house. She had officials to run thehousehold
affairs, but she had to check the accounts and agree to anyexpenses.
It was her duty to receive guests courteously and arrange fortheir
accommodation. Ladies-in-waiting were her companions,maidservants
attended her, and nurses looked after her children. The childrenwere
very important, for the lady's main role in medieval society wasto
provide heirs. Ladies were often very well educated. Some couldread
and write, understand Latin, and speak foreign languages.